It is also cumbersome to keep adjusting the movable plane of the equipment, in order to get accurate readings. It causes much inconvenience, especially if many of the people in line are of very different heights.
What about when the many people in line are much taller than you!?
> If we can use the measurements of other body sites,
for example, the distance between one's outspread arms to predict our height...
Mass health screening exercises carried out at polyclinics or community centres would be done much more quickly and efficiently!
Hence for our Statistic project, we decide to examine the relationship between arm span and height.
Our Research Hypothesis (H1)
: There is a relationship between arm span and height
As for the Null Hypothesis (Ho),
: There is no relationship between arm span and height
Independent Variable (IDV) - Arm Span
Dependent Variable (DV) - Height
Extraneous Variable (EV) - Age, Sex, Genes, Diet, Ethnic group
> interchangeably with height?
3. Does arm span correlate with height?
More than 400 years ago, Leonardo Da Vinci proposed that the length of a man's outspread arms is equal to his height (Drexel Universiy, 2009).
Leonardo Da Vinci was a scientist, engineer and mathematician. He was more famous for his works as a artist though.
Leonardo's proposal is also supported by recent studies.(Brown et al., 2000) stated that arm span is a valid measure of height.
However, they only carried investigations of this research on young and middle-age adults. Accuracy is improved using a prediction equation derived from regression analysis. This article requires further studies to support the claim that arm span is proportional to a person's height.
In a follow-up study done by Ohio State University, (Brown et al., 2002), research is done on using a age range of 19 to 67. The study also compared self-reported height and arm span measurement to actual height, to determine their level of accuracy.
Self-reported height data is found to be closer to actual height measurements.
Though so, arm span measurements were still shown to be accurate enough as an alternative for measured height, when neither measured height nor self-reported height are available. This research used test-retest reliability as a control, ensuring a very strong reliability (r=0.997) for both arm span and height measurements.
The research findings suggest that we can trust patients to give a reliable answer about their height during health assessment
During research, we also found out that arm span measurements are used as a substitute for standing height in clinical settings (Parker et al., 1996). The research was done by staff in the Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, D.C., USA. The measurements were used in predicting lung volume in patients unable to stand or with *thoracic abnormalities.
This research article studied the relationship between standing height, arm span, race, sex, and age in 202 patients, aging from 20 to 88, that were referred for screening spirometry. Multiple linear regression analysis found arm span, race, sex, and age to be predictive of standing height (r2 = 0.8659, p <0.0001>).
In all the studies reviewed, arm span measurement is found to be reliable enough to be used to predict measured height.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether there is a strong relationship between arm span and height measurement, whether arm span is a good predictor of actual height.
: Students of NYP
2. Heels, calf, buttock and back should preferably touch the stadiometer.
3. Record standing height in mm, refrain from rounding at this stage.
Computing Pearson's Correlation Coefficient
Computing Regression EquationRESULT
The scatter appears to follow a general positive linear trend. There is no violation of the linearity assumption. The chosen level of significance is a= 0.05.
There is a positive, very strong, and significant relationship between arm span and height. (r = 0.923, p<0.05, n =" 40)" style="font-size:100%;">Null hypothesis is rejected.
The researchers' findings back up the literature review. Prior research has already indicated that the use of arm span length to predict height is accurate enough to be used as a predictor of height ( Brown, et al., 2000; Brown, et al., 2002;Parker, et al., 1996). Our findings strengthen external reliability.
In clinical settings, we nurses can apply this research findings when measuring height, be it for calculating base mass index or general documentation in nurses' casesheets.
Limitations of Study/Needs for Improvement
The research procedures should have been prepared much more earlier. The study could have been more representative if the researchers collected data from more locations around the school.
After a semester of HS2135, Statistics, our sub-group has learnt about simple terms commonly used in research. For example the term, null hypothesis, mutually exclusive, the difference between nominal, ordinal and scale data, and also reliability and validity.
We are also sufficiently competent in using SPSS for simple data analysis. The importance of literature review is also realised. For research projects, teamwork is essential for planning the study, carrying it out and finally analysing the data. If not, the workload would not be equally divided, ensuring efficency.
Through data collection, we also learnt how to approach strangers and explain to them about our study.
What is interesting is that we learnt to integrate what we learnt in HS2134, Research Method with statistics. For example, the concept of sampling, validity and reliability.
All the skills or knowledge gained will help us after we graduate and when we need to carry out research to improve our nursing care for patients.
The null hypothesis Ho is rejected. There is a relationship between arm span and height. Leonardo Da Vinci's proposal that arm span and height being equal was not supported. The research findings showed that arm span and height findings are close, but they are not equal. Despite the fact that Leonardo was wrong in his proposal, it is still admirable that someone actually observed the similarity in arm span and height measurements long before the modern era.
We will be delighted if blog visitors read through the whole report and learn something as a result.
References are posted on another blog entry.